1 THE burden of Tyre. Howl, O ye ships of Tarshish! for it is laid waste, so that there is no house, no one entering in: from the land of Chittim it is made manifest unto them.
VERSES 1, 2. Tyre and Zidon were the ultimate norders. of Philistia, and were near the sea; whence by “Tyre” are signified interior knowledges, and by “Zidon” exterior knowledges, and this of things spiritual, which also appears from the Word, as in Jeremiah:-“Because of the day that cometh to spoil all the Philistines, to cut off from Tyre and Zidon every helper that remaineth; for Jehovah will spoil the Philistines, the remains of the island of Caphtor;” (xlvii. 4.) where by the “Philistines” are signified the sciences of the knowledges of faith and charity; by “Tyre” the interior knowledges, and by Zidon the exterior knowledges of things spiritual. So in Joel:-“What have ye to do with Me, O Tyre and Zidon, and all the borders of Philitia? Because ye have taken My silver and gold, and have carried into your temples My desirable good things;” (iii. 4, 5.) where “Tyre and Zldon.” “manifestly denote knowledges, and are called the “borders of Philistia;” for “silver and gold, and desirable good things, are knowledges. So in Ezekiel:-“The princes of the north, all of them, and all the Zidonians, who have gone down with the slain. He shall be laid in the midst of the uncircumcised, with the slain with the sword, Pharaoh and all his company;” (xxxii. 30, 32.) where the” Zidonians ‘ signify exterior knowledges, which, without internal, are nothing but mere scientifics; wherefore they are mentioned together with “Pharaoh,” or Egypt, by whom are signified scientifics. So in Zechariahia:- “Hamath also shall have its border thereby; Tyre and Zidon, for he was very wise;” (ix. 2.) speaking of Damascus; “Tyre and Zidon” denote knowledges. So in Ezekiel:-” The inhabitants of Zidon and of Arvad were thy mariners: thy wise ones, O Tyre, that were in thee, were thy pilots;” (xxvii. 8.) where “Tyre” denotes interior knowledges, wherefore her wise ones are called “pilots;” and “Zidon” denotes exterior knowledges, wherefore her inhabitants are called “mariners ” [rowers], for such is the relation of interior knowledges to exterior. So in Isaiah:-” The inhabitants of the island are silent; the merchants of Zidon, they that pass over the sea, have replenished thee. And by great waters the seed of Sihor, the harvest of the river, was her revenue; and she was the mart of the nations. Be thou ashamed, O Zidon: for the sea hath spoken, even the fortress of the sea, saying, I have not travailed, nor brought forth children; neither have I nourished young men, nor brought up virgins;” (xxiii. 2-4.) where “Zidon” denotes exterior knowledges, which, having nothing internal in them, are called “the seed of Sihor,” “the harvest of the river, her revenue,” “a mart of the nations,” and also “the sea,” and “the fortress of the sea;” and it is said that “she does not travail, nor bring forth;” which expressions, in the literal sense, seem without meaning, but in the internal sense they have a clear signiflcation, as is the case with other passages in the Prophets. Because ” Zidon” signifies exterior knowledges, it is called “they that are round about Israel,” or the spiritual church; (Ezek. xxviii. 24, 26.) for exterior knowledges are like things that are around. A. C. 1201.
As to the knowledges of Truth and Good, and their indispensable necessity to the regeneration and salvation of man, see above, Chap. xvii. 1, Exposition.
Verses 1-3. Howl, O ye ships of Tarshish! for it [TyreJ is laid waste, &c.-The holy things of the church, which are here described, no one can know except from the internal sense. Every one knows that the holy things of heaven and the church are everywhere in the Word, and that it is from this that the Word is holy. In the sense of the letter the subject treated of is concerning the merchandise of Tyre and Zidon, which are not holy, without a more interior sense, which is holy. But what, in this sense, is signified by the “merchandise of Tyro,” will be evident when explained. The “ships of Tarshish” are the doctrinals of Truth and Good. “Tyre and Zidon” are the knowledges of Good and Truth; “no house, and no one entering in,” signifies that there is no longer any Good, into which Truth can be implanted. “The inhabitants of the island who are silent,” are the more remote goods; “the seed of Sihor ” is scientific truth;” the harvest of the river [or the Nile], her revenue,” is the good which is hence out of the church. A. C. 9295.
Ships of Tarshish.-As to the spiritual signification o! the “ships of Tarshish” see also above, Chap. ii. 12-17, Exposition.
Verses 1-5. The burden of Tyre;-the inhabitants of the island are silent; the merchants of Zidon, they that pass over the sea, have replenished thee &c.-By “Tyre” and “Zidon” are signified the knowledges of Good and Truth, wherefore it is said-” The merchants of Zidon, they that pass over the sea;” a “merchant” denoting one who procures to himself those knowledges and communicates them. That they procured to themselves nothing of Good and Truth thereby, is signified by “The sea hath spoken, saying, I have not travailed, nor brought forth children; neither have I nounshed young men, nor
brought up virgins;” for to “travail” and to “bring forth is to produce something from knowledges; “young men” are truths, and “virgins” goods. That thence the use of lmowledges and of sciences would perish, is signified by these words, “As at the tidings out of Egypt, so shall they be seized with pain at the tidings of Tyre. A. E. 275
Verses 1, 2, 4, 5, 6. Howl, O ye ships of Tarshish! for it [Tyre] is laid waste, so that there is no house, no one entering in: from the land of Chittim it is made manifest unto them, &c.-The desolation of Truth in the church is described in these words; for by the “ships of Tarshish” are signified the knowledges of Good from the Word, and by “Tyre” the knowledges of Truth thence. That there is no good in consequence of there being no truths, is signified by “Howl, O ye ships of Tarshish! for Tyre is laid waste, so that there is no house, no one entering in.” That falses then enter, until there are no more any goods of Truth and truths of Good in the natural man, is signified by “From the land of Chittim it is made manifest unto them, the inhabitants of the island are silent; the merchants of Zidon, they that pass over the sea, have replenished thee.” The “land of Chittim” signifies falses; the “inhabitants of the island,” the goods of Truth in the natural man, as was explained above; the “merchants of Zidon” signify knowledges from the Word; ”passing over the sea” means which are in the natural man; ” who [viz., the merchants of Zidon] have replenished thee,” signifies those who have enriched thee therewith. The devastation of Truth and of Good in the natural man is further described by “Be thou ashamed, O Zidon: for the sea hath spoken, even the fortress of the sea, saying, I have not travailed, nor brought forth children; neither have I nourished young men, nor brought up virgins.” By “Zidon,” as well as by “Tyre, are slgnified the knowledges of Good and Truth in the church; By. “the sea, and the fortress of the sea,” is signified the whole natural man, by I have not travailed, nor brought forth,” is signified that there is not anything of the church conceived or generated; by “young men. are signified the affections of Truth, and by “virgins” the affections of Good. That this was the case in consequence of knowledges from the Lord, and confirming scientifics being applied to falses and evils, is signified by “As at the tidings out of Egypt, so shall they be seized with pain at the tidings of Tyre.” “Egypt signifies scientlfics; “Tyre,” knowledges from the Word,-in the present case, devastated by falses and evils to which they are applied; and inasmuch as there is lamentation on account thereof, it is therefore said that “they shall be seized with pain. That all Good and Truth in the natural man would thus perish, is signified by “Pass ye over to Tarshish; howl, O ye inhabitants of the Island!” “Tarshish” signifies the interior goods and truths in the natural man; the” inhabitants of the island,” the exterior goods and truths in the same; and to “howl,” signifies grief by reason of devastation. A. E. 406.
2 The inhabitants of the island are silent; the merchants of Zidon, they that pass over the sea, have replenished thee.
3 And by great waters the seed of Sichor, the harvest of the river [Nile], was her revenue; and she was the mart of the nations.
Verse 2. The merchants of Zidon, &c.- The Lord likened the kingdom of heaven to a “‘merchant man,” (Matt. xiii. 45.) to teach us that “merchants,” when mentioned in the Word, are those who procure to themselves the knowledges of Truth and Good, and thence intelligence and wisdom. By “pearls” are signified knowledges, and also truths themselves; and by “the pearl exceedingly precious,” is signified the acknowledgment of the Lord. And by “the man selling all that he had,” is signified to alienate all things which are of self-love; and by “buying it” is signified to procure to himself that divine Truth. A. E. 480. See also A.C. 2967, 5886; A. R. 726, 916.
Verses 2, 14. They that pass over the sea have replenished thee;-your stronghold is laid waste, &c.-By the “ships of Tarshish ” are understood doctrinals from the Word, for those ships carried “gold” and “silver,” by which are signifled goods and truths, and the knowledges thereof from the Word; and because by “Tyre” is signified the church as to the knowledges of Truth and Good,-in this passage, devastated, hence it is said-” Howl, O ye ships of Tarshish! for Tyre is laid waste. By “the inhabitants of the island” are understood those who are in the goods of life, accord!ng to their doctrinal principles. By “the merchants of Zidon” are signified those who are in Truths from the Word, concerning which it is said, that,”they have replenished thee.” By “your stronghold,” or fortress, is signified doctrine from the Word, which guards or protects [like a fortress]; and by its being laid waste is signified that there is no perception of it, and hence no Truth, for truths are falsified by ideas not just concerning them: A. E. 514.
4 Be thou ashamed, O Zidon: for the sea hath spoken; even the fortress of the sea, saying, I have not travailed, nor brought forth children; neither have I nourished young men, nor brought up virgins.
5 As at the tidings out of Egypt, so shall they be seized with pain at the tidings of Tyre.
6 Pass ye over to Tarshish; howl, O ye inhabitants of the island!
7 Is this your joyous [city], whose antiquity is of ancient days? her own feet shall bear her far away to sojourn.
Verse 4. The sea hath spoken even the fortress of the sea, saying, I have travailed; &c.-By “the sea, and the fortress of the sea,” is signified the natural principle, where the knowledges signified by Tyre and Zidon” are. That not any have been reformed by those knowledges, is signified by “I have not travailed, nor brought forth children;” and that there is consequently no understanding of Truth and no affectIon of Truth, is signified by “neither have I nourished young men, nor brought up virgins.” A.E. 865.
8 Who hath counselled this against Tyre, the crowning [city], whose merchants were princes, whose traders were the honoured of the earth?
9 Jehovah of Hosts hath counselled it; to pollute the pride of all [her] beauty; to make contemptible all the honoured of the earth.
10 Pass through thy land, like a river, O daughter of Tarshish; the girdle is no more.
11 He hath stretched out His hand over the sea; He hath shaken the kingdoms: Jehovah hath commanded concerning Canaan, that they should destroy her strong places.
Verse 8. Who hath counselled this against Tyre, the crowning [city], whose merchants were princes, whose traders were the honoured of the
earth! -Again in Ezeklel:- “All the ships in the sea were for the trading of thy trading; Tarshish was thy trader in silver, iron, tin and lead; they gave thy markets. Javan, Tubal, and Meshch, these were thy merchants, with the soul of man and vessels of brass they gave thy trading. The sons of Dedan were thy merchants; many islands, the merchants of thy hand. Syria was thy trader with chrysoprasus. But thy wealth and thy tradinys, thy markets, and they who trade thy trading, shall fall into the heart of the seas in the day of thy fall.” (xxvii. 1, to the end.) Who cannot see that by the “tradings” and “merchandise” there mentioned are not understood tradings and merchandise, for what has the Word, which in itself is divine and celestial and teaches man concerning God, heaven, and the church, concerning eternal life, and the like, in common with such things? Hence it may be evident to every one that all the particular things there mentioned signify things spiritual, which appertain to heaven and the church, not only the names of the places with which the tradings were transacted, but also the particular merchandise thereof. But to expound all the particulars in the spiritual sense would be too prolix in this place; it is sufficient for the present purpose that it be known that the “tradings” there mentioned signify the acquisitions and communications of the knowledges of Truth and Good, and that the “merehandise,” or wares, signify those knowledgee themselves which are multifarious. A. E. 840.
The crowning city.-A “crown” signifies wisdom, intelligence, and eternal felicity, as may be seen from those passages in the Word where “crown” is mentioned. A.E.125, 152, 195.
[It hence follows that Tyre is called a “crowning city,” because all intelligence and wisdom come from the knowledge of revealed Truth, or the Word, and from their right application.]
Verses 1, 10, 13, 17. Howl, O ye ships of Tarshish! from the land of Chittim it is made manifest unto them, &c.-That neither the ships of Tarshish, nor Tyre, nor the land of Chittim, nor the land of the Chaldeans, nor the Assyrian, are here understood, may appear from every particular thing contained in this chapter. But by the “ships of Tarshish” are understood the knowledgee of Truth and Good, and likewise by “Tyre;” by the “land of Chittim,” what is idolatrous; by the “land of the Chaldeans,” the profanation and destruction of Truth; and by the “Assyrian,” ratiocination from falses. Hence it is evident what is signified by the “ships of Tarshish howling because Tyre is devastated,” namely, that there are no more any knowledges of Truth. That “it shall be made manifest unto them from the land of Chittim,” signifies that what is idolatrous is from thence. “The girdle is no more” signifies that there is no more coherence of Truth
with Good. “To the land of the Chaldeans,” signifies that so there is profanation and destruction of Truth. ” The Assyrian hath laid the foundation into heaps,” signifies that ratiocination from falses has destroyed. To “return to her meretricious gain,” and to “commit fornication with all the kingdoms of the earth that are upon the face of the ground,” signifies falsification of all the Truths of the church. A.E. 304.
12 And He bath said, Thou shalt rejoice no more, O thou oppressed virgin, the daughter of Zidon! Arise, pass over to Chittim; even there thou shalt have no rest.
Verse 12. O thou oppressed virgin, the daughter of Zidon!-As to the meaning of “daughter” and “virgin,” see above, Chap. xvi. 2. Exposition.
The girl is no more.-For the spiritual signification of a “girdle,” see Chap. 18-25; xi. 5, Expositlon.
13 Behold the land of the Chaldeans! this is not a people; the Assyrian hath laid the foundation into heaps: they raised the watchtowers, they set up the palaces thereof; this people hath reduced her to a ruin.
14 Howl, ye ships of Tarshish: for your stronghold is laid waste.
Verse 13. Behold the land of the Chaldeans! this is not a people.–“The land of the Chaldeans: this is not a people,” signifies falses. “The Assyrian hath founded it [into heaps]” for reasonings; “watchtowers” here signify phantasies. A. C. 1368.
And it shall be in that day, that Tyre shall be forgotten seventy years, according to the days of one king: at the end of seventy years it shall be to Tyre as the song of a harlot.
Take the harp, go about the city, O harlot forgotten; strike sweetly the harp; multiply the song, that thou mayest be remembered.
Verses 15, 10. At the end of seventy years it shall be to Tyre as the song of a harlot, &c.-By “Tyre” is signified the church as to the kuowledges of spiritual Truth and Good, as was said above -in this case, the church in which those knowledges are falsified. A “harlot” signifies, the falsification of Truth, as may be seen above, n. 141;. and by “taking the harp, going about the city, playing sweetly,” &c., the exultation and boasting of the false over the destruction of Truth. A.E. 323.
As to the spiritual signification of a “harlot” and of “fornication,” so often mentioned in the Prophets, see above, Chap. i. 21, Exposition.
Verses 15, 17. Tyre shall be forgotten seventy years, according to the days of one King, &c.-That all numbers in the Word are significative, and that they signify things, see A. C. 1963, 1988; and that numbers multiplied signify the same with the simple ones from which they are compounded, see n. 5291, 5335. Thus “seventy” the same as “seven” [only in greater fulnessJ. That “seventy” denotes an entire period, thus a full state, is evident from the following passages. “Tyre shall be forgotten seventy years, according to the days of one King: at the end of seventy years it shall be unto Tyre as the song of a harlot; and it shall be at the end of seventy years that Jehovah
will visit Tyre.” (Isa. xxiv. 15, 17.) “Seventy years” denote an entire period from beginning to end, [In this case, the entire period of the devastation of Tyre.] “According to the days of one King” signifies the state of Truth within the church; for ” days” are states, n. 6505, and “King” is Truth, n. 1672, 2015. Everyone who well
considers this passage, may see that by “Tyre” is not meant Tyre, and that without the internal sense it cannot be understood what it is for “Tyre to be forgotten, or to be given to oblivion seventy years,” and what it is for this to be “according to the days of one King.” See also Jeremiah xxv, 11, 12; xxix. 10; and Daniel ix. 24; where it is plain that “seventy years” and “seventy weeks” signify a full or complete state of the subject treated of, [and not seventy years or weeks in a literal sense.] A. C. 6508.
As to the spiritual signification of the number “seven” see above Chap. iv, 1, Exposition.
[“One King” does not signify any one given king, but the number “one,” like the number “seventy,” has its spiritual meaning, and signifies what is perfect, entire, and genuine. (A. E. 374.) Thus “Tyre shall be forgotten, or gIven to oblivion seventy years according to the days of one King,” implies that Tyre, or that state of the church which perverts the knowledges of what is True and Good from the Word, would be destroyed. as to the states of all genuine Truth; “days”: signifying states, “one” what is genuine and perfect, and “King” Truth. That the number “one” does not signify numerically one, is evident from what is said in Psalm xxvii. 4 :- “One [thing] have I desired,” &c., which is a genuine or perfect state of worship, denoted by the things which follow, namely,-“That I rnay dwell in the house of the Lord all the days of my life, to behold the beauty of the Lord, and to inquire in His temple.” Again, “when the Lord says-“One [thing] thou lackest,” (Mark x. 21.) He did not mean simply one thing, but a perfect state of love to God and of charity to his neighbour, denoted by the things which follow, namely,-“That he should sell what he had,” that is, renounce his proprium and deny himself; “give to the poor,” a life of charity; and “come and follow Him,” to acknowledge and worship the Lord ;-by which his state would become one, that is, genuine and perfect.]
17 And it shall be at the end of seventy years, that Jehovah will visit Tyre: and she shall return to her meretricious gain; and she shall commit fornication with all the kingdoms of the earth that are upon the face of the ground.
Verses 17, 18. And it shall be at the end of seventy years, that Jehovah will visit Tyre, &c.—” Tyre,” in the Word, is the church as to the knowledges of Truth and Good, The” meretricious gain” denotes the same knowledges applied to evils and falses by perversion; her ”merchandise” is the selling thereof; to “commit fornication with
all the kingdoms of the earth,” denotes with all the truths of the church. The reason why it is said that “her merchandise and her meretricious gain shall at length be holy to Jehovah,” is because thereby are signified knowledges of Truth and Good by them applied to falses and evils, and man, by the knowledges themselves, viewed in their true nature and quality; may become wise; for knowledges are the means of becoming wise, and they are also the means of becoming insane, when they are falsified by applications to evils and falses. Similar things are signified where it is said that “they should make to themselves friends of the unjust mammon;” (Luke xvi. 9.) and by its being commanded that “the sons of Israel should borrow from the Egyptians gold, silver, and raiment, and take them away with them;” (Exod. lii.21, 22; xii, 35, 36.) for by the “Egyptians” are signified scientifics of every kind, which they applied to falsify truths. A. E. 141.
The knowledges of what is True and Good from the Word, signified by “Tyre,” are called “meretricious gain” when they are taught for for the sake of gain, honour and fame; for in this way they are, as it were, sold, and are not taught for the sake of Truth itself. This, in the Word, is called “meretriciousness and whoredom.” To “commit fornication with all the kingdoms of the earth,” is thus to act with all the truths of the church; “upon the faces of the ground,” signifies wheresoever the church is.” A. C. 10,570.
18 But her merchandise and her meretricious gain shall be holy to Jehovah: it shall not be treasured up, nor shall it be kept in store; for her merchandise shall be for them that dwell before Jehovah, for food sufficient, and for clothing [as of] old.
Verse 18. But her merchandise and her meretricious gain shall be holy to Jehovah, &c.-The “merchandise” and “meretricious gain” are the knowledges of what is Good and True from the Word applied to evil uses. That these knowledges should be given to the good who apply them to good uses, is meant by “her merchandise being for them that dwell before Jehovah, for food sufficient, and for clothing themselves as of old.” The case is this,-the knowledges of what is Good and True, with the evil, are applied to evil uses; and the same knowledges, with the good, are, applied to good uses. The knowledges are the same, but the application of them to uses makes their quality, whether good or bad, with each individual. These knowledges, as spiritual treasures, are like worldly riches, which by one person are applied to good uses, and by another to evil uses. Hence it is that riches, with each person, are of such a nature as the uses to which they are applied. From this it is clear that the same knowledges, like the same riches, which were in the possession of the evil, can be in the possession of the good, and be made subservient to good uses. Hence it may be seen what was represented by the command that “the sons of Israel should borrow of the Egyptians vessels of gold and of silver,” &c., (Exod. xi. 2, 3.) and should thus spoil or rob them, Such robbing would never have been commanded by Jehovah, unless it had represented in the spiritual world such things, namely, the taking away, at the time of Judgment, of the treasures of knowledge from the evil, and transferring them to the good. Thus the Lord says, in respect to the wicked servant” Take therefore the talent from him, and give it to him that hath ten talents; for unto everyone that hath shall be given, and he shall have abundance; but from him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath.” (Matt. xxv. 28, 29.) A. C. 7770.
The merchandise of Tyre shall before them that dwell before Jehovah, for food sufficient, &c.-By the “merchandise of Tyre” are signified the knowledges of Good and Truth of every kind; to “dwell before Jehovah” signifies to live from the Lord; to have “food sufficient” signifies to receive, perceive, and appropriate the knowledges of Good sufficiently for the nourishment of the soul; to “clothe himself as of
old” [or, with what is ancient], signifies to imbibe the knowledges of genuine Truth; for to cover is predicated of truths, because “garments” signify truths, “clothing” good, and “old” [or ancient] is predicated of what is genuine, inasmuch as genuine Truths were with the ancients. A. E. 617. See also above, in respect to “the kings of antiquity,” Chap. xix, 11, Exposition.
Author: Emanuel Swedenborg [Compiled by J. H. Smithson 1860]