1 The word of Jehovah came again unto me, saying,
2 And thou, son of man, take up a lamentation over Tyre;
1, 2. Further concerning the church in respect to knowledges of truth, which is Tyre. P. P.
1-36. From this and many other passages in the Word it appears that trading, commerce, traffic, and wares are nothing else but things that relate to the knowledges of goodness and truth, belonging to the church and to the Lord’s kingdom. A. 4453.
See Chapter XXVl., 7, 11. H. 365.
To buy and sell means to procure knowledges to one’s self and to teach them, and in like manner to trade, to do business, and to gain. R. 606.
All the particulars here mentioned signify things spiritual, which appertain to heaven and the church, not only the names of the places, but also the particular merchandises thereof. Tradings signify the acquisitions and communications of the knowledges of truth and good. E. 840.
2 The prophet Ezekiel was called son of man. L. 28.
3 and say unto Tyre, O thou that dwellest at the entry of the sea, that art the merchant of the peoples unto many isles, thus saith the Lord Jehovah: Thou, O Tyre, hast said, I am perfect in beauty.
4 Thy borders are in the heart of the seas; thy builders have perfected thy beauty.
5 They have made all thy planks of fir-trees from Senir; they have taken a cedar from Lebanon to make a mast for thee.
3-9. The ancient church had knowledges of truth and good of every kind and species, and by means of them it had intelligence. P. P.
3, 7, 15, 35. Isles signify the nations or Gentiles, specifically as to the doctrine of truth, or in other places as to the doctrine of what is false. E. 50.
3, 12, 13, 15-23. The traffickings and merchandise, and the wares which are mentioned are nothing else than knowledges of good and truth. For this reason Tyre is called the dweller at the entrance of the sea, for waters are knowledges, and the sea is the gathering of them. A. 2967.
4-9. Knowledges of good and truth (Tyre) are described by what relates to a ship, as planks, mast, oars, bench, sails, a covering, rowers, pilots and mariners. A. 6385.
4-9, 25. The knowledges of good and truth from the Word are signified by a ship, because ships cross the sea, and bring back the necessaries which supply the natural man for every use, and these same knowledges are the necessaries which supply the spiritual man for its uses, for from them is the doctrine of the church, and according to this is life. Ships signify these knowledges, because they are containers. R. 406.
Tyre, signifying the knowledges of good and truth is treated of, also her trading, and the various wares by which she was enriched, meaning spiritual opulence. Here therefore a ship is described with all its furniture. A ship signifies doctrine from the Word, the doctrines themselves by its wares, and the procuring of wealth and spiritual riches, and by its trading the means of wisdom. E. 514.
6 Of the oaks of Bashan have they made thine oars; they have made thy benches of ivory inlaid in boxwood, from the isles of Kittim.
6 The subject here is Tyre, by which they are signified who possess celestial and spiritual riches, or interior knowledges. Embroidered work from Egypt stands for external knowledge, and thus for rituals representative of spiritual things.’ Blue and purple from the isles of Elishah, for rituals corresponding to internal worship, representing thus celestial things. They are here used in the genuine sense. A. 1156.
When contrasted with lands or mountains, islands also represent truths of faith. From being in the sea they mean doctrinal teachings, which are rituals. A. 1158.
6, 15. Ivory represents natural truth. R. 774.
The reason why ivory signifies rational truth is, because by elephant (camel) is signified the natural in general. Ivory is from its tooth, it is white, and the
animal has power by it, and can resist. E. 1146.
The planks of a ship from the isles of Kittim stand for external worship. A. 1156.
7 Of fine linen with broidered work from Egypt was thy sail, that it might be to thee for an ensign; blue and purple from the isles of Elishah was thine awning.
7 Tyre, the possession of knowledges is spoken of. Fine linen with broidered work stands for the truths of learning which serve. Outward knowledges, because they are of the external man, ought to serve the internal man. A. 1462.
Broidered work from Egypt stands for what is of knowledge. Colors are representative. A. 2576.
Said of Tyre, by which is also mean t the ancient church as to knowledges of good and truth.. Her sail, fine linen with broidered work from Egypt means truth from outward knowledges, as a sign of external significative of that church. A. 5319.
Good and truth are the blue and purple from the fine linen. A. 5954.
Blue and purple for a covering mean knowledges of truth and good from a celestial origin. A. 9467.
The fine linen in needlework from Egypt refers to the knowledges of the natural man. R. 503.
Celestial good and truth are signified by purple and scarlet. R. 725.
Refers to Tyre, by which the church as to the knowledges of the good and truth is signified. R. 814.
By Egypt is signified science from which man has intelligence. Where Tyre is treated of it signifies the knowledges of truth. Fine linen and needlework from Egypt mean the scientific grounded in spiritual truth. E.654.
Blue and purple, speaking of Tyre, means the knowledges of truth and good from a celestial origin. By covering and expansion (sail) are signified the external things of the church. E. 1042.
Truth is signified by fine linen, and good by purple, both of a celestial origin. E. 1143.
7, 16, 20, 23, 24. By Tyre is understood the knowledge of truth and good, and by her merchandise and trading are signified the procuring and communicating those knowledges, by purple and blue the celestial love of good and truth, by Egypt the scientific truth of the natural man, the same by embroidery. By Syria is meant the church in regard to the knowledges of good and truth, Ashur means the rational of that church. Sedan means those who are in the knowledge of celestial things. By the merchandise of Tyre, of which this entire chapter treats, is understood not natural merchandise, but spiritual things which are to be procured, stored up in the mind, and thence communicated. E. 195.
7, 16, 24. By fine linen in broidered work is signified truth of knowledge, for fine linen is truth Irorn celestial origin, and broidered work is acquired knowledge. Such external knowledge is meant by Egypt. A. 9688.
7, 24. By blue and purple from the isles of Elishah intelligence of truth and good is meant. A. 9466.
Hyacinth signifies intelligence from the affection of spiritual love, because that color partakes of the redness of fire and the whiteness of light. Love is signified by fire, and intelligence by light. R. 450.
Said of Tyre which signifies the church as to the knowledges of truth. By the merchandise and trading is meant the procuring of intelligence by those knowledges. Broidered work is the science of such things as pertain to the church, which being in an inferior place, and thus round about or without is called spreading forth, and said to be for a sail. E. 576.
8 The inhabitants of Sidon and Arvad were thy rowers: thy wise men, O Tyre, were in thee, they were thy pilots.9 The old men of Gebal and the wise men thereof were in thee thy calkers: all the ships of the sea with their mariners were in thee to deal in thy merchandise.
8 Tyre stands for interior knowledges, wherefore her wise men are called pilots, Zidon for exterior knowledges, therefore her inhabitants are called rowers, for such is the relation of interior knowledges to exterior. A. 1201.8, 9. By pilots are signified those who are wise. E. 1170.
10 Persia and Lud and Put were in thine army, thy men of war: they hanged the shield and helmet in thee; they set forth thy comeliness.
10 Lut and Put stand for internal knowledges, which are said to be in the army of Tyre, and men of war, because they serve in defending truths by the aid of reason. This also is to hang the shield and helmet. A. 1231.
10, 11. Army stands for the truths meant by Tyre, the interior knowledges of good and truth. Shield and helmet are such things as pertain to combat or spiritual war. A. 3448.
Truths that protected that church. P. P.
11 The men of Arvad with thine army were upon thy walls round about, and valorous men were in thy towers; they hanged their shields upon thy walls round about; they have perfected thy beauty.
11 The Gammadim in its towers stand for knowledges of interior truth. A. 4599.
Speaking of Tyre – the knowledges of good and truth, signified also by a city and walls. This is evident from the description of the holy Jerusalem coming down out of heaven, which was seen by John. A. 6419.
Concerning Tyre, by which is signified the church as to the knowledges of truth from the Word. R. 898.
12 Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all kinds of riches; with silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded for thy wares.
12 Tarshish stands for rituals, or doctrinal teachings. A. 1156.
12, 13. Acquisitions and communications of all the knowledges. P. P.
12, 18, 33. By wealth and riches in the Word are meant spiritual wealth and riches, which are knowledges of good and truth, and thus the means of wisdom. A. 10227.
12, 19. From this, and from what precedes and follows in the same chapter, it is very evident that celestial and spiritual riches are signified, also that each particular thing has a special signification, and also the names, for the Word of the Lord is spirit, land not words. A. 4 26.
13 Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, they were thy traffickers; they traded the persons of men and vessels of brass for thy merchandise.
14 They of the house of Togarmah traded for thy wares with horses and war-horses and mules.
13 Vessels of brass here stand for natural good. A. 425.
Man here stands for those who are in good, and thus for good, because man is man from good. A. 4287.
The soul of man stands for the interior truths of faith from good, vessels of brass for exterior truths of faith from good, vessels being exterior or acquired truths, and brass the good of the natural. A. 9050.
Brass means natural good, because all metals in the Word signify goods and truths. R. 775.
By the soul of man is signified goods and truths of the literal sense of the Word. R. 781.
The merchandises of Tyre are treated of, by which are signified the knowledges of good and truth. By the names Javan, Tubal, and Meshech are signified such things as pertain to good and truth, to which the knowledges relate. The soul of man stands for the truth of life, vessels of brass for scientifics (knowedges) of natural good. E. 70.
By Javan and Tubal is meant the acquisition and communication of the knowledges of truth and good in external representative worship. By the soul of man, and vessels of brass is signified the science of good and truth in the natural man. E. 750.
By the soul of man are understood servants, who are sold, thus slaves, that is subservient scientifics, and the like by vessels of brass. E. 1156.
13, 14. This is said of Tyre, by which they were represented who possessed knowledges of celestial and spiritual things. Javan, Tubal and Meshech, as also the house of Togarmah are different representative or correspondent rites. The external rites of the three former relate to celestial things, of the latter to spiritual things. This is evident from the signification of the merchandise in which they traded. Here they are in the genuine sense. A. 1154.
By Javan, Tubal, and Meshech are signified those in external worship, by those of the house of Togarmah those in internal worship. Therefore it is said of the latter that they traded in the fairs of Tyre in horses, horsemen, and mules, and of the former three that they traded in the persons of men, and vessels of brass. The Word is Divine, and treats of Divine things. E. 355.
14-20. Knowledge, intelligence and wisdom by means of them. P. P.
15 The men of Dedan were thy traffickers; many isles were the mart of thy hand: they brought thee in exchange horns of ivory and ebony.
15, 20, 21. Dedan signifies internal knowledges of the lower celestial kind, which are in rituals. Horns of ivory and ebony, in the internal sense, are exterior goods, which are of worship or of rituals. Flowing garments for riding are also exterior goods or goods of ritual. A. 1172.
16 By Aram or Syria are signified internal knowledges of good. Tyre which represents it is here spoken of. Handy works, chrysoprase, broidered work, fine linen, coral, and carbuncle here signify nothing else than internal knowledges of good. A. 1232
The chrysoprase is here joined with purple, and because purple signifies the celestial love of good, it follows that the chrysoprase signifies the celestial love of truth. Syria, which is the merchant, signifies the knowledges of good, which knowledges are the truths of celestial love. A. 9868.
16 Syria was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of thy handiworks: they traded for thy wares with emeralds, purple, and broidered work, and fine linen, and coral, and rubies.
16, 22. By Syria, and by Sheba and Raamah are also understood the knowledges of truth and good, and by trading the acquisi tion of them. It is therefore said that those nations gave precious stones In their tradings. The knowledges of truths and good are truths in ultimates, such as are those of the literal sense of the Word. E. 717.
17 Judah, and the land of Israel, they were thy traffickers: they traded for thy merchandise wheat of Minnith, and pannag, and honey, and oil, and balm.
17 The goods of love and charity and their happy things are the wheat of Minnith, and pannag, and honey, and oil and balsam. Judah is the celestial church, and the land of Israel the spiritual church, from which those things are. The tradings are acquisitions. A. 3941.
Here by balm is signified truth from good. A. 748.
Honey here is put for the pleasantness and enjoyment from affections for knowing and learning celestial and spiritual goods and truths. A. 5620.
Tyre in this place signifies the knowledges of the truth and good of the church. Judah and the land of Israel, who are here called her merchants signify the church, Judah as to good, and the land of Israel as to truth, derived from good. By trading is signified to procure to themselves, and to communicate to others. E. 375.
By Judah is signified the good of love, and by Israel truth derived from that good. Therefore its tradings are said to be in wheat from Minnith and pannag. By these are signified the truths and goods of the church of every kind. Also by honey – the good of love in the natural man, and oil – the good of love in the spiritrual man, and balm – the truths which are grateful by virtue of good. E. 433.
Oil and honey signified spiritual and natural good. E. 619.
18 Damascus was thy merchant for the multitude of thy handiworks, by reason of the multitude of all kinds of riches, with the wine of Helbon, and white wool.
18 Wool here signifies truth as a form of celestial good. A. 9470.
By Damascus, a city in Syria, is signified what is concordantly scientific. The multitude of wares signifies good and riches truth. As the knowledges of truth and good are in the natural man, everythlng pertainlng to knowledge and science being therin perceptible, the wine of Helbon – natural truth, and white wool – natural good are mentioned. E. 376.
19 Vedan and Javan traded with yarn for thy wares: bright iron, cassia, and calamus, were among thy merchandise.
20 Dedan was thy trafficker in precious cloths for riding.
19 Dan stands for the first truths which are affirmed, fairs and tradings for acquisitions of truth and good. The bright iron means natural truth, which is the first, cassia and calamus for natural truth, from which there is good. A. 3923.
It is plain that by calamus something of the church, and worship there is meant. It thence follows that it is truth or good, and from the internal sense it is evident that interior truth is meant. A. 10256.
Dan and Javan represent those who are in knowledges of heavenly things, bright iron is outmost heavenly truth, and cassia is inmost truth. A. 10258.
21 Arabia, and all the princes of Kedar, they were the merchants of thy hand; in lambs, and rams, and goats, in these were they thy merchants.
21 Arabia stands for the wisdom of the knowledges of good and truth – Tyre. Kedar for their intelligence, lambs for celestial things, rams for spiritual things, and the goats for natural things, which follow in order. A. 2830.
Arabia stands for spiritual good, the princes of Kedar for spiritual truths, lambs, rams and he-goats are spiritual goods and truths. A. 3268.
Traders are those who have knowledges of good and truth and communicate them, lambs are the goods of love, rams are the goods of charity, and he-goats the goods of faith. A. 10042.
By merchants are signified those who cornrnumcate and teach the knowledges of good and truth (Tyre). By lambs, rams, and goats are signified three degrees of the good of innocence. E. 314.
All the animals which were used in sacrifices signify such things as appertain to the church, all of which have reference to good and truth. E. 817.
21-23. Divine worship from them. P. P.
22 The traffickers of Sheba and Raamah, they were thy traffickers; they traded for thy wares with the chief of all spices, and with all precious stones, and gold.
22 These things signify knowledges of faith. A. 117.
The gold of Sheba is the good of knowledges. A. 9881.
Tyre is the church as to knowledges of good and truth, traders are those who have such knowledges and communicate them. Sheba and Raamah are those who are in the knowledge of things celestial and spiritual. The chief of spice is what is grateful from interior truths, precious stones are those truths themselves, and gold is their good. A. 10199.
By Sheba and Raamah are signified those in knowledges of celestial things. A. 10254.
By spices are signified truths, which are grateful because derived from good. E. 242.
22, 23. What is here signified by Sheba and Raamah is evident from their merchandise. Spice in the internal sense is charity, the precious stone faith from charity, and gold is love to the Lord, all these are celestial things, signified by Sheba. Properly the internal knowledges of such things are Sheba, and therefore they are here called merchandise, wherewith all who become men of the church are imbued, for no one can become a man of the church without internal knowledges. A. 1171.
23 Haran and Canneh and Eden, the traffickers of Sheba, Asshur and Chilmad, were thy traffickers.
23, 24. The subject here is the spiritual church, which is Israel, whose reason is Asshur. Where Asshur is mentioned, it is of reason, true or false. A. 1186.
The external conjunctions of good and truth are meant by the raiment tied with cords. A. 9854.
24 These were thy traffickers in choice wares, in wrappings of blue and broidered work, and in chests of rich apparel, bound with cords and made of cedar, among thy merchandise.
25 The ships of Tarshish were thy caravans for thy merchandise: and thou wast replenished, and made very glorious in the heart of the seas.
24, 25. Truths and goods of every kind, and thus everything of the church acquired by means of them. P. P.
26 Thy rowers have brought thee into great waters: the east wind hath broken thee in the heart of the seas.
27 Thy riches, and thy wares, thy merchandise, thy mariners, and thy pilots, thy calkers, and the dealers in thy merchandise, and all thy men of war, that are in thee, with all thy company which is in the midst of thee, shall fall into the heart of the seas in the day of thy ruin.
26 See Chapter XVII., 10. A. 7679.
There is such power in the east wind in the spiritual world, therefore on account of its correspondence of destroying all things where the evil are. The face of a new earth then arises for the good. 1419.
26, 27. These things also are said concerning Tyre and her ships, by which are signified the knowledges of good and truth, or the truths of the natural man, which is procured by themselves, and which they sell. In the present case however they stand for falsities. By the midst of the seas, in which the east wind has broken her, and into which she shall fall in the day of her ruin, is signified the same as by the deep, namely, hell. The east wind stands for influx from heaven the day of her ruin for the last judgment, riches for falsities, her fairs and merchandise for the acquisitions and communications thereof. Her mariners, the ministers, the pilots the prelates who teach and lead. The men of war those who defend, and the company false doctrines. E. 538.
26-29. Through natural know ledges (scien tifics) they have perished. P. P.
28 At the sound of the cry of thy pilots the suburbs shall shake.
29 And all that handled the oar, the mariners, and all the pilots of the sea, shall come down from their ships; they shall stand upon the land,
30 and shall cause their voice to be heard over thee, and shall cry bitterly, and shall cast up dust upon their heads, they shall wallow themselves in the ashes:
28-30. The devastation of that church is here described. R. 406.
The devastation of Tyre, by which the church as to the knowledges of good and truth is described. R. 786.
By pilots are signified those who are wise by knowledges from the Word, by those who handle the oar are the intelligent. The vastation of wisdom and intelligence is signified by the sound of the pilot’s cry. E. 514 .
30 In the representative churches they bowed themselves so low that they let down the face to the earth, because the face signified a man’s interiors. They sprinkled dust and ashes upon the head, which represented the state of true humiliation. The state of humiliation is the essential state of worship itself. So far as the heart is humbled the love of self, and all the evil which spring from it ceases. A. 2327
By the dust which was formerly put on the head when in grief and repentance is signified what was condemned. A. 7418.
By ashes is meant falsity. A. 7520 .
By ashes, in the opposite sense, is meant what is cursed, remaining after the burning from the fire of self-love. A. 9723.
By putting dust upon the head meant that they had acted insanely, or contrary to wisdom. R. 538.
Interior pain and grief on account of the destruction and condemnation is signified by casting dust upon the head. R. 788.
Grief also for sin in having acted insanely and foolishly was represented by sprinking dust upon the head, and by thrusting down the head even to the earth. E. 577.
Mourning on account of damnation is meant, for ashes signify what is accursed, because the fire which produces them signifies infernal love. E. 1175.
30, 31. Said of Tyre, the particulars being representative of mourning for falsities and evils. Wallowing in ashes stands for being damned on account of falsity, girding themselves with sackcloth for mourning, because they had no good. A. 4779.
30–34. Lamentation over their destruction. P. P.
31 and they shall make themselves bald for thee, and gird them with sackcloth, and they shall weep for thee in bitterness of soul with bitter mourning.
32 And in their wailing they shall take up a lamentation for thee, and lament over thee, saying, Who is there like Tyre, like her that is brought to silence in the midst of the sea?
33 When thy wares went forth out of the seas, thou filledst many peoples; thou didst enrich the kings of the earth with the multitude of thy riches and of thy merchandise.
34 In the time that thou wast broken by the seas in the depths of the waters, thy merchandise and all thy company did fall in the midst of thee.
31 On account of transgressions against Divine truths, they put off their garments, and put on sackcloth. R. 166.
Mourning on account of vastated truth was represented by sackcloth. R. 4492.
In the mourning for their prevariation against Divine truth they should put off their garments, and put on sackcloth. E. 195.
Speaking of Tyre, the knowledges of good and truth belonging to the church. In this case is described mourning on account of those knowledges being lost. The pilots signify all who bring and communicate those truths. To induce baldness means to mourn because all things of intelligence were destroyed, to gird with sacks means the knowledge of truth being destroyed. It is therefore added they shall weep over thee etc. E. 637.
32-34, 36. The vastation of Tyre is treated of. See also Chapter XXVIII., 2-7. A. 2967.
35 All the inhabitants of the isles are astonished at thee, and their kings are horribly afraid; they are troubled in their countenance.
36 The merchants among the peoples hiss at thee; thou art become a terror, and thou shalt nevermore have any being.
35 In chapters XXVI and XXVII are first treated the intelligence and wisdom of the men of the church, obtained by the knowledges of truth and good from the Word, and afterwards the church vastated as to such knowledges. E. 406.
35, 36. And that it is the countenance of hell. P. P.
Author: Emanuel Swedenborg (Compiled by Robert S. Fischer 1925)